Backup Active Directory with PowerShell

Based on this Technet article I’ve developed a simple Active Directory backup tool with PowerShell.

What it does:

  • Create a full snapshot from Active Directory
  • Keep a daily, weekly and monthly snapshot
  • Notify me if something failed (requires PowerShell PowerUp)

    <#
    $Metadata = @{
    	Title = "Backup ActiveDirecotry"
    	Filename = "Backup-ActiveDirectory.ps1"
    	Description = ""
    	Tags = "backup, active, directory, ntsutil"
    	Project = ""
    	Author = "Janik von Rotz"
    	AuthorContact = "http://janikvonrotz.ch"
    	CreateDate = "2014-04-15"
    	LastEditDate = "2014-04-15"
    	Url = ""
    	Version = "0.0.0"
    	License = @'
    This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Switzerland License.
    To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ch/ or 
    send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View, California, 94041, USA.
    '@
    }
    #>
    
    try{
    
        <#
        #--------------------------------------------------#
        # about
        #--------------------------------------------------#
        
        The restore and backup process is described here: http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/dd581644(WS.10).aspx
        
        #>
        
        #--------------------------------------------------#
        # settings
        #--------------------------------------------------#
        
        $Path = "C:\Powershell-PowerUp\backup\ActiveDirectory"
        
        #--------------------------------------------------#
        # main
        #--------------------------------------------------#
        
        # create backup file name
        $Filename = "ADBackupFull" + "#" + $((Get-Date -Format s) -replace ":","-") + ".bak"
        $Filepath = Join-Path $Path $Filename
        
        # backup active directory
        Invoke-Expression 'ntdsutil "activate instance ntds" ifm "create full $Filepath" quit quit'
        
        # get dates for backup retention exclusion
        $Today = Get-Date -Format d
        $FirstDateOfWeek = Get-Date (Get-Date).AddDays(-[int](Get-Date).Dayofweek) -Format d
        $FirstDateOfMonth = Get-Date -Day 1 -Format d
        
        # delete all backups except for today, first day of week and first day of month
        Get-ChildItem $Path | select *,@{L="CreationTimeDate";E={Get-Date $_.CreationTime -Format d}} | Group-Object CreationTimeDate | %{
            
            # only one backup per day
            if($_.Count -gt 1){
                
                $_.Group | Sort-Object CreationTime -Descending | Select-Object -Skip 1     
            }
                    
            # keep only required backups
            $_.Group | Where-Object{$_.CreationTimeDate -ne $Today -and $_.CreationTimeDate -ne $FirstDateOfWeek -and $_.CreationTimeDate -ne $FirstDateOfMonth}
                
        } | Remove-Item -Recurse -Force
    
    }catch{
    
        Write-PPErrorEventLog -Source "Backup ActiveDirectory" -ClearErrorVariable
    }
    

Latest version of this script: https://gist.github.com/10729700

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